Pressure is growing on food manufacturers to find alternatives to eggs and egg products as ingredients. Recent outbreaks of avian influenza throughout the world have resulted in price volatility, with significant spikes in cost. The growth in demand for ‘free-from’ or allergen-free foods continues (Crane, 2016).

Eighty-four percent of consumers consider them to be healthier, natural and less processed (Mintel, 2015). Also on the rise is the demographic of vegans, who require egg-free food products. Furthermore, increased concern about the environmental footprint of food production is pushing food manufacturers to look for functional, economical and nutritional egg replacers.


The protein composition of eggs gives them the solubility, emulsification, foaming and gelation properties that are needed by formulators. Eggs are said to be ‘polyfunctional’ – in other words, they can contribute more than one functional property at the same time (Pomeranz, 1991; Yang and Baldwin, 1995). Depending on the functionality required, eggs can be used whole, or as white and yolk fractions.